The First Consul is responsible for the coordination of the College of Consuls, chairing its assemblies, and the implementation of central government policies and rules among the federal governors, or Consuls. Unlike in most governments, where power flows from a central government purely through its own agencies and ministries, the Central Galactic Government possesses both a council of executive federal ministers and administrators, and a council of high-level regional administrators and governors. This ensures the cooperation of the central government with regional governments, and maintains a regular line of communication and deliberation between the different levels of administration.
The inaugural First Consul was Philip Rycon, who also held the office of Prime Minister. Since his resignation in 3288, the offices have been held by different people.
The office was preceded by the office of Consul of the Confederation, also called the First Consul as well. The Consul of the Confederation was the chairman of the Central Committee of the Confederate Assembly, with dual role as its Secretary General, chairing its executive bureaucracy. For its entire existence, the Central Galactic Confederation was chaired by Maximilian Compton, then-chief of state and Emperor of the Terran Empire. The Central Committee included the heads of state of the member states of the confederacy, as well as the chairs of the other standing committees of the Assembly. Maximilian headed the Assembly as a 'first among equals' with one-year terms as Consul.
After the reformation of the Confederation on 30 March 3275, the member states were dissolved and its star systems were ruled autonomously by governors appointed to one-year terms, referred to as Consuls. The Constitution promulgated on 20 April reorganised the Confederation as the Republic and mandated the formation of a council or college of governors, but left its composition a matter of later legislation. The Central Galactic Congress created Sectors as areas of governance, and as electoral constituencies; these Sectors were to be each governed by a Consul appointed to six-year terms. Each Consul, as well as the Procurator of Luna and the Proconsuls of each of the planets of the Sol System, were to hold a seat in the College. The new College of Consuls was to be chaired by the First Consul, chosen from amongst them.
The office of First Consul, while not constitutionally mandated, was deemed early on to be of great importance and prestige. The Consular Act of 3275 provided for the creation of the college as a deliberative body for all major executive governing figures of the Republic, and the First Consul was to be its chairman. The relevant governors were largely carried over from the interim consuls of 3275, and were appointed in a smooth transition in February 3276. Philip Rycon, holding the office of Procurator of Luna, was elected First Consul. Rycon also served as Prime Minister during this time, managing both major advisory bodies of the Executive Council. Rycon served until his retirement from both offices in 3288.
During its formative years, the Republic experienced several crises in its colonial regions. The Occupied Territories witnessed a massive revolt of remnant forces in 3279, prompting a military and security operation to quash the rebels. Civil unrest in the Outer Colonies took its most public and violent form in the Keystone Incident in the summer of 3280. Late 3284 through the middle of 3285 saw an explosion of criminal and civil conflict between pirate groups called the Pirate War. The Consuls, with responsibility over large spheres of influence in space, coordinated under Lord Rycon to present a unified defence and social policy in how to deal with these emerging threats. Coordination of defensive military forces became a top priority.
Being that Lord Rycon served also as the head of the central government and coordinated its ministries, he wielded enormous influence over the governors in favour of the central government's policies. Prior to the crises of the 3280s, this created some tension; but when violence broke out, the strong lines of communication between federal and sectoral government proved vital. The central government, through Lord Rycon, pressed for increased military and State Security presence in both colonies and provinces as well as for more thorough welfare and human services which had become decentralised in the Late Empire.
After the elections of 3288, Lord Rycon was asked to step down as Prime Minister. He resigned both chairmanships and departed the central government. He governed Luna until he retired to private life in 3291. He was replaced as First Consul by Liu Calvin, War Minister and governor of the Orion Capital District. Some political analysts speculated that Calvin was an interim First Consul and that he would depart office within a year to make way for other, Terran politicians and governors. This attitude changed with the outbreak of war four months into Calvin's first term.
With the start of the Magellanic War, Calvin became viewed as a highly valuable coordinator of domestic government. His experience in the War Ministry and his governing of the immense Empire of Orion prior to and during the Great War were valued for his ability to envision strategic matters on the scale of the entire Republic, and see how they can be applied to individual sectors. His efforts proved vital early in the war as he coordinated the industrial efforts and natural resources of the sectors to power the central government's war effort in the Magellanic Clouds. He was an effective organiser of these resources, but earned the spite of some fringe colonial governors who were displeased by the Republic's commitment to the war. This situation changed somewhat in the 3292 appointment period, where several dissident and obstructionist governors were replaced with loyal ones. However, Calvin still felt increasingly isolated in the College of Consuls as its head, and resigned at the end of his fourth term in January 3293.
Calvin was replaced by State Security General Alan Somerset, governor of the Far Rim occupied territory. However, shortly after his reappointment Somerset was assassinated in December 3294. He was replaced by John Genevra, last reigning Emperor of Orion and governor of the Orion Capital Sector. Genevra remains First Consul as of this writing.