The Colonial Liberation Organisation (CLO) was an organisation founded in 3004 for the purpose of "liberation of the colonial working class and of the colonies themselves from Imperial rule" through political action and, after 3012, through armed struggle. It engaged in campaigns of terrorism, insurrection, and guerilla warfare from 3012 to its dissolution in 3269, and was considered a terrorist organisation by the member states of the ISTO as well as the Core Pact states from 3030 to 3141, when that alliance dissolved and its members joined other alliances. The Soviet Republic and its satellite members of the Communist Interstellar at various points tacitly and overtly supported the cause of the CLO. The United Suns and its allies in the FIGN gave no comment on the subject during the entirety of the CLO's existence, though evidence surfaced prior to and during the Great War that indicated that the FIGN gave covert support to the CLO.

The organisation was not a single group, but a confederation of several groups and factions that agreed to certain terms and conditions in the CLO Charter. It faced internal struggle and violence over ideological status throughout its existence. However, its decline was precipitated not by physical force, but by the onset of the Great War. The day after the declaration of war, the CLO reached an armistice with the ISTO. A provisional Colonial Alliance government was formed to co-administer colonies then under CLO occupation. This was subsumed in 3269 into the Imperial Department of Colonial Affairs and the CLO was dissolved that same year.

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