The Central State Police Agency is the national police service of the Central Galactic Union, and is an armed, uniformed law enforcement agency under the Republic Security Department. It is the main police agency for member worlds and colonies of the Republic, conducting or overseeing security operations and criminal investigations in local, territorial, and planetary jurisdictions. This is in contrast to the Interstellar Police, which exercises interplanetary and interstellar jurisdictions.
Prior to 3286, the State Police Commission was subordinate to the National Police Department. Each member world and colony world had their own autonomous, independent police agency; they coordinated policy and standards through the NPD, which sometimes exercised operational authority in emergency situations. The police and security reforms after the terrorism and piracy crises of the 3280s dissolved the NPD and subordinated all planetary police to the CSP. However, to reduce costs to the Central Galactic Government, most member worlds and colonies maintain their original local police agencies under CSP supervision; typically a Police General will be appointed to serve as the chief or co-chief of a planet's police service. Some worlds, and all federal districts, have all policing handled directly by the CSP.
The Central State Police has its roots primarily in the Terran, Sagittarian, Orionese, and Cygnus national police agencies. These centralised police agencies emphasised public order, in which police would conduct surveillance of their patrol areas to observe, and act to stop crimes in progress or to issue citations or make arrests. The sheer scale of these empires meant that national police was loosely organised into colonial police bureaus for each planet; and in the case of the Terran Empire, coordinating inspectorates for provinces, which oversaw numerous star systems. Each planetary bureau would have their own investigative department and other specialist departments for particular kinds of serious crime. Most of the predecessor states of the Republic had investigative police that crossed planetary or stellar boundaries, in an antecedent to the Interstellar Criminal Police Commission. In nearly all cases, these police were either independent agencies or were subject to the relevant Interior Ministry. These were all placed under the control of the Galactic Space Police, an independent agency of the Central Galactic Confederation.
The abolition of these empires and the admittance of over a hundred million worlds as autonomous member states of the new Union saw a complete transformation of police. The centralised method of police organisation gave way to autonomy. Each member world and federal colony organised their own police force, with varying forms of subdivided jurisdiction. The State Police Commission was formed as a federation of these police forces, with a deliberative assembly composed of police representatives from each federal administrative sector. This commission was made a part of the National Police Department of the Ministry of State Security in 3276.
However, it was determined by an extensive investigation that the disorganised system of independent police formation in the colonies and member worlds had contributed to the lack of coordination in combating piracy, banditry, and organised crime prior to and during the Pirate War. Security Service officers had authority to federalise the planetary police in specific instances, and coordinate them with Security Forces and the military. This was deemed to be a sluggish way of utilising police forces, and a new system was required. In 3286, the Public Security Act reorganised all provincial and metropolitan police under the State Police Commission, which was reorganised into a central agency. The act provided for the oversight of all planetary police by the CSPA and their federalisation in times of emergency at the discretion of a State Police Inspector appointed to each member world and colony world. All federal districts would have their own police abolished, and the CSPA would thereafter handle all policing for those districts.