The Central Galactic Government is the federal government of the Central Galactic Union, a republic comprised of half a billion member and colony worlds and ten billion directly-administered worlds, organised into managed districts typically referred to as sectors. It is subdivided broadly into executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government under the traditional Terran model of state, with some overlap in membership and powers among these branches. The legislative powers are vested primarily in the Central Galactic Congress, a mixed-member, single-chamber parliament. The power to execute and enforce this legislation is vested in the Supreme Chancellor and the Executive Council, and other agencies and departments to whom the Chancellor delegates power. Judicial power to interpret and apply the law is vested in three supreme courts as well as the Tribunate. The overlap of powers includes the Tribunate, a committee of the Congress, acting as a supreme constitutional court; the ability of the Supreme Chancellor to issue executive orders with the force of law and the Supreme Chancellor's role as President of the Congress; and the power of the courts to remand absconding parties of a legal or criminal process. The Constitution of the Central Galactic Union set forth these branches, their powers, and their interrelationship; unlike the organically-developed constitutions of the Terran Empire, under which the separation of powers is loose and the branches were often coextensive, the Union constitution explicitly separates the branches while also enumerated the ways in which they overlap. Further acts of the legislature and executive orders have defined other ways in which governing power is delegated and vested to these branches and their subordinate agencies.

The government also goes by other names in informal contexts, such as the Central Government, National Government, or Federal Government. Appellations of "Central Galactic", "National", and "Republic" often designate agencies of the Central Galactic Government from those of member worlds.

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