The Armed Forces of the Central Galactic Union are the central armed and uniformed military forces of the Republic and is one of the principal organisations for the execution of national security policy. It consists of six of the armed and uniformed service branches of the Central Galactic Government: the Army, Spacy, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard. The Supreme Chancellor of the Republic is the Armed Forces' overall head, and guides national defence and military policy through the Ministry of War, an executive civilian agency which administrates and manages the Armed Forces.

The Armed Forces of the CGU have played an enormous role in the nation's history, and have roots in the militaries of the human empires that united to form the CGU at the end of the Great War. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of the victory. The largest influence and point of continuity is the Imperial Forces of the Terran Empire. Considerations for military organisation and galaxy-wide defence have been large components of fiscal and administrative policy since the inception of the Republic.

The AFCGU is the largest military force ever seen in the galaxy, consisting of over ten trillion active-duty servicemembers and over twenty trillion reserve servicemembers across all six branches of service. An additional fifteen trillion synthetic citizens are servicemembers, mostly installed as onboard AI for spacecraft, orbital defence stations, forts, airbases, and ground combat stations. The Armed Forces active duty component is largely filled by paid volunteers, while the reserve component largely consists of conscripted citizens as per the National Service Act. However, as needed or determined by the Ministry of War, reserve personnel can be called up for active duty.

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